Newborns typically spend two thirds of their time asleep. By the time they get to school, most children have spent more hours asleep than awake. Sleep enables essential processes throughout childhood – it's an active time for physical growth and repair, as well as learning, consolidating memories and emotional maturity.

Unfortunately for their parents, most very young children – and even most teenagers – are not hardwired to think sleep is a good idea, and bedtime is often a battleground.

According to a large survey by the National Sleep Foundation in the US, 76% of parents would like to change something about their child's sleep. The most common concerns are getting a child to sleep, and staying asleep through the night.

When children don't sleep, neither do their parents, which can drive even the most patient of parents to anxiety, frustration, desperate measures and even depression. It's natural to have questions…

  • Is it my fault?
  • Will they get better on their own?
  • Is there something seriously wrong?
  • What can I do now?

The vast majority of sleep problems in childhood can be solved using behavioral methods. If you're a parent, or you're about to become one, the aim of this guide is to share some evidence-based techniques to help your child sleep through the night.

The focus of this guide is on the early years, when sleep problems are most common, but in the science section, we describe how you can expect sleep to change as your child gets older, and sleep tips for each age group. We've also included answers to frequently asked questions for common problems.

This guide is not a replacement for medical advice. If at any time you have concerns about your child's sleep, please speak to your doctor.

Create a consistent daily schedule

Well before children learn to tell the time, they can learn a routine daily schedule. This helps to set their internal body clock and will encourage sleep at the same time each day.

From as early as 6 to 8 weeks, it is possible to introduce a set bedtime, a set wake time, and set nap times. Naps for very young babies could be every two hours from waking, whereas toddlers can follow set clock times. Planned feeding times will also reinforce the daily schedule.

In the first year in particular, things are often unpredictable, and you'll need to flex the schedule. Start with a morning or evening routine, and build on that. Incorporate things that your child does naturally, but try to keep a consistent order.

As long as they're getting enough sleep overall, it's fine wake your child in the morning or after a nap, in order to keep the schedule on track.

For toddlers, schedule nap times and playtimes. Use frequent reminders to let them know what is going to happen next in the day, especially as you lead up to bedtime.

Keep in mind that most behavioral techniques rely on consistency so that both children and parents know what to expect. You may need to try the technique for several weeks before seeing signs of improvement.

Respect routine bedtime rituals

A consistent bedtime routine, or a set of specific 'rituals' before lights out, will signal to your child that it's time to sleep. Just as the daily schedule keeps the body clock on track, they will learn to associate a bedtime sequence with sleepiness.

The crucial elements are that bedtime rituals are calming, and end in the place your child goes to sleep. The routine should end with the favorite part, such as hearing a favorite story.

At a few months old, the routine just take a few minutes (nappy change, pajamas, lullaby), but if repeated in the same order every day, the pattern will be recognizable. For toddlers a routine including bath time and books might be up to 45 minutes, time it so that it doesn't need to be rushed. For preschoolers, a chart on the wall showing the steps in the bedtime routine can reinforce the sequence and make it easier for you to avoid attempted diversions “that's not what the chart says”.

A 2015 survey of over 10,000 children aged 0-5 years across the globe found that a consistent bedtime routine was associated with longer sleep time, fewer behavioral problems and fewer nighttime awakenings. The younger the routine started, and the more frequently it was followed, the better the child's sleep (Mindell 2015).

Early sleep training: learning to go solo

Everyone has brief wakeful periods during the night between sleep cycles of deeper sleep. Most adults aren't aware of waking because they wake for less than three minutes. The secret to your child sleeping through the night is for them to learn to soothe themselves back to sleep after a brief awakening.

Babies and younger children who can't sleep without being rocked, cuddled, having milk or even put in the back of a car, have developed a learned an association between getting to sleep and specific conditions which are hard to find in the in the middle of the night.

Learning new associations as an infant

Research evidence shows that you can train your child to sleep solo by gradually letting them spend longer amounts of time by themselves at night, until they routinely drift off alone. In the literature, this is called 'graduated extinction', but there are variations which involve more or less parental contact.

Early preparation: self-soothing

Between 6 and 12 weeks, start putting your baby down to sleep when drowsy but awake. A favorite toy or a baby mirror in the crib could help occupy them. This is their first practice at self-soothing – if they start to whimper they may still settle down, but they shouldn't be left to cry for prolonged periods.

Older Infants: gradually learning to sleep solo

A few months later, once you have a set bedtime and a consistent bedtime routine, you can start teaching your child to fall asleep independently.

After the bedtime routine, say goodnight and leave the room. The first few times a child notices this change in their routine, they are likely to be upset. They will cry out, call or scream. Wait a few moments. Then return to check they are okay. Tell him or her that it's time for sleep. Be gentle but firm and don't pick them up. Stay for no more than a minute before you leave. Don't reinforce your child's crying by staying too long. If they continue crying, check again after a few minutes. Make the visits brief and boring. Repeat until they go to sleep.

How often you check on your child, and how long for, will depend on your child’s temperament and also your tolerance for hearing them cry. If they are comforted quickly, make the visits short, but if the visits themselves are unsettling, it may be better to leave longer gaps between checks.

Most children will cry for around 45 minutes the first night and will often cry for longer the second night, but within a week most children are starting to sleep by themselves.

Alternative approaches

Most parents find it very difficult to hear their child crying. If you would prefer not to leave your child upset for so long, you can try staying in the room while your child sleeps, but gradually moving your chair further and further away from them until after a week or two they are by themselves. This technique typically takes longer than graduated extinction.

Learning new associations as a toddler or older child

For toddlers who understand language and a sense of time, rather than leave a child for longer and longer periods, you can stay with them for shorter and shorter periods. Each time explain how long you will be staying, and stick to what you've said.

Similarly, if your child has never been left before, you may need to tell them that you have to leave for a very brief time – for example – to do a job in another part of the house, before returning. Gradually increase the length of your errands until your child falls asleep waiting for you.

Common questions

How can I help my baby stop crying and go to sleep?

On average, babies cry for 3 hours a day. He is trying to tell you something, but it won't always be possible to figure out what. The most common reasons are probably hunger, tiredness, discomfort, pain, over-stimulation and boredom – but in babies with colic, crying can continue for hours without an identifiable cause. Colic affects up to 1 in 5 babies from a few weeks up to 6 months old.

If your baby cries excessively, see a healthcare professional to rule out common causes like reflux or eczema. If crying is combined with other symptoms, seek medical advice.

I'm still waking up to feed multiple times during the night. Is this normal?

After six months, infants don't physically need a night time feed, but up to a half will continue to wake up during the night. This is particularly common where a baby has learned an association between feeding and falling asleep – when they wake up, they expect milk in order to fall back to sleep.

In an infant older than six months, try and reduce the association between feeding and sleeping by moving feeding earlier in the pre-sleep routine. For example feed in a different room, before getting ready for bed in the bedroom.

You can also wean your baby gradually from requiring a full bottle or feed just before they sleep by reducing the volume of milk in a bottle each day over a week, or gradually reducing feeding time for a breastfed infant.

Once a baby has learned to fall asleep at bedtime without a feed, they should be more able to get back to sleep during the night without a bottle.

Is it true that putting a baby to bed later means they're more likely to fall asleep faster?

It may sound logical, but in fact children of any age will have a harder time settling down if they're overtired.

Does co-sleeping mean they're more likely to sleep through the night?

Whether or not you share your room, or your bed, with your baby is a very personal choice. In some societies, co-sleeping is the norm. Research suggests that on average, children who sleep in their parents' room are less likely to sleep through the night, and their mothers wake up more frequently.

Are breast-fed babies are more likely to sleep through the night?

Since breast milk is easier to digest than formula, it typically means shorter intervals between feeding. An 8 week old bottle-fed baby might sleep for 4 to 6 hours, while a breast-fed baby is like to wake to feed every 2 to 3 hours. Breast-fed babies are also more likely to form an association with nursing to sleep, which can mean it takes longer to learn to 'go solo' and self-soothe to sleep.

My daughter only falls asleep in the car – what can I do?

Your daughter has learned an association between falling asleep and specific conditions, and will need to learn to fall asleep by herself. Try the 'Learning to go solo' techniques to gradually increase her tolerance for sleeping by herself.

My toddler gets hyperactive at bedtime. How can I calm him down?

Young children need lots of sleep, although they are often reluctant to admit that they're tired. Look for signs of sleepiness before your child starts to be overtired, which frequently results in 'hyper' behavior. Start the bedtime routine at a consistent time each evening so that your toddler is in bed before 8:30pm. If they really don't feel tired they can play quietly in their crib with the lights low. If they are often overtired at night, experiment by shifting the whole bedtime routine forwards by 15-30 minutes.

How can I persuade my 4 year old son that he wants to go to sleep?

He probably thinks he'll be missing out – little does he know it'll probably only be on the washing up! The bedtime routine and consistent schedule are important. Have a regular pattern which includes things he enjoys, but ends in bed. Be firm in setting limits. Warn him when bedtime is coming up, and stick to what you tell him. For example, warn him “In 10 minutes it'll be bath time, and then it'll be time for a book.” Try using a timer to show when playtime is running out, so that it's not you always saying when to stop.

If he refuses to stay in bed, try avoid giving extra attention for bad behavior. Be as neutral and uninteresting as you can, and return him to his bed. You may need to do this multiple times. Be consistent. Don't reward him for his persistence by letting him stay with you. If he's not tired, he can play quietly in his bedroom with the lights low. Tell him you will check on him at regular intervals, and do so. Congratulate him for getting back into bed. In nights that he does stay in his bed at the time you've set, try a star chart to reinforce good behavior.

How can I stop my 5-year-old napping every day?

Although many children give up napping after their third birthday, around 15% of 5-year-olds still have a nap most days. Naps can be very positive – toddlers who nap typically have longer attention spans and a longer total sleep time than those who don't.

Trying to keep your child up won't necessarily help them sleep better at night – in fact, better daytime sleep is often associated with better nighttime sleep.

After age 5, deliberately eliminating afternoon naps can help get your child earlier to bed in the evening. If transitioning out of naps, start by alternating days. Encourage your child to be outside in the sunlight when they would typically be napping to help keep them alert naturally, and move bedtime forward if they start to feel sleepy.

My daughter is afraid of the dark, how can I reassure her?

Listen carefully to what she's afraid of and try to understand the source of fear. Reassure her that she is safe but don't dismiss her fear. Explain how you have overcome fears in the past, and find stories to read in which children conquer their fears. A comforting soft toy or object, and keeping a dim night light on through the night, could help her feel more secure.

It sounds obvious, but don't read scary stories or play chasing games before bed.

Just as a child's imagination can conjure up scary things, it can also conjure up imaginary defenses – a force field, or magic wand could help her feel safe. Encourage your daughter to come up with solutions that will give her confidence.

Relaxation strategies such as imagining a favorite secure, peaceful, environment could be helpful to help older children get to sleep.

I'm going on holiday – what about the routine?

There are lots of reasons that the daily schedule gets thrown into disarray – illness, holidays, new babysitters, working late.. Unfamiliar surroundings will almost certainly cause a temporary blip, but don't worry, things will settle down again! If you're anxious about bedtime being disrupted, so will your child.

Find ways to re-create any 'rituals' that are transferable. Do things in the same order, and pack an object they're attached to, familiar bedding and favorite books. Even a few days of a consistent schedule should help your child settle in a new location.

Is it true that my child will grow out of being a poor sleeper?

Babies and children are unlikely to grow out of sleep problems unless something is done about it. Studies show that most babies with sleep problems at age 1 are still sleeping poorly at age 4 without intervention.

The science of sleeping in childhood

Average sleep needs throughout childhood

Every child is different, and every child starts with a different natural pattern of sleep. The guidance for sleep needs on the following pages has been taken from advice agreed by sleep experts in the US for the 'average' child. The experts acknowledged that there is wide natural variation in sleep patterns and needs, especially in the first year of life.

What to expect at different ages..

Newborns 0-3 months

On emerging from the dark and cozy uterus, newborns typically sleep for 30 minutes to 4 hours at a time, for 11 to 19 hours a day. There tend to be no set patterns, and the unpredictability of the next wake time can be particularly challenging. Initially parents need to adapt their schedule entirely to fit their new arrival's needs for food, changing nappies/diapers and nurturing.

At birth, our 'circadian' or 24-hour timing system hasn't developed, so most newborns are no more likely to sleep during the night than the day. After the first few weeks, if your baby still seems to have their nights and days mixed up, you can help to set their internal clock by increasing playtime, social interactions and household noises during the day, but keeping lights dimmed, voices low and stimulation to a minimum in the evening and night.

Newborns don't have the same type of sleep as adults – they tend to be more animated. Newborns spend 50% of their time in 'active' REM sleep which can involve smiles, whimpers and movements, and 50% of their time in quieter, non-REM sleep, but this can still involve startle responses and sucking movements.

At 6-8 weeks, most babies will only manage to stay happy and alert for up to 2 hours at a time. By recognizing early signs of sleepiness, you can start to put your child down to sleep while they are drowsy, but awake. The aim is to help them to become 'self-soothers', able to fall asleep and put themselves back to sleep when they wake at night.

After 8 weeks, sleep during the night should start to consolidate into longer stretches, but for some infants this takes several months.

Signs of sleepiness

  • Rubbing her eyes
  • Crying or whimpering
  • Yawning or stretching a lot
  • Pulling or flicking her ear
  • Getting faint circles under the eyes
  • Staring blankly into space
  • Quiet and content after a feed
  • Turning away from people and moving objects

Sleep tips for newborns

  • Put a sleepy baby down while they're still awake, to help them learn to get to sleep on their own.
  • After the first 6 weeks, gradually increase play activity during the day to encourage night sleeping.
  • Put babies to sleep on their backs.
  • Where possible, sleep when your baby sleeps.

The safest sleeping position to reduce the risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) is to put a baby to sleep on their back on a firm, flat mattress. Keep soft items like pillows, blankets and quilts out of reach to avoid risk of smothering. Avoid overheating – your baby needs a similar amount of clothing as you are wearing. The risk of SIDS is highest for babies aged between 2 and 4 months.

Infants aged 4 to 11 months

Infants naturally have 'polyphasic' sleep, in multiple stretches over the day. They often take several months to establish a regular sleep and napping routine.

By 9 months, around 60% of children take one nap in the morning and another in the afternoon, and over 70% are sleeping through the night.

Infants typically sleep in 60 minute cycles (and adults in 90 minute cycles), so brief arousals during the night are common. In terms of biological needs, by 6 months, all infants are capable of getting through the night without a night feed. So-called 'good sleepers', who apparently sleep through the night, are actually 'self-soothers' who go back to sleep by themselves after brief awakenings.

'Signalers' signal their wakefulness with a cry, and may need rocking or nursing back to sleep. They will need to gradually learn to get to sleep by themselves (see 'Going Solo').

Sleep tips for infants

  • Establish a regular sleep schedule – set a consistent bedtime and wake time. A typical infant bedtime is between 7-8:30pm. Waking the baby for a late feed at 10:30-11:30pm may help reduce early morning awakenings.
  • Create a consistent bedtime routine.
  • Put a sleepy baby down while they're still awake, to help them learn to get to sleep on their own.
  • Avoid consistently feeding your baby just before they fall asleep – start to move feeding to earlier in the bedtime routine.

Toddlers aged 1 to 2 years

Toddlers typically need at least 11 hours sleep every 24 hours. Most toddlers go to bed between 7 and 9pm, and wake between 6:30 and 8am.

Before they are two years old, most toddlers have decreased to 1 nap per day, but don't actively prevent your child from napping – some 3 year-olds still benefit from two naps per day.

As toddlers become mobile and language skills develop, toddlers become more capable of resisting bedtime, and expressing fear or separation anxiety. More than 1 in 4 parents of toddlers are worried about their child's sleep. One in 5 toddlers still wake up regularly during the night.

Many toddlers can feel more secure with a familiar object like a favorite toy or blanket which may help them fall asleep and stay asleep through the night.

Reinforcing good behavior with a consistent approach and a routine schedule become increasingly important.

Sleep tips for toddlers

  • Continue to maintain a regular sleep schedule with a consistent bedtime and wake time.
  • Create a consistent and enjoyable bedtime routine.
  • Put your toddler to bed sleepy, but awake.
  • Make the sleeping environment the same throughout the night (see the 'pro-sleep zone').
  • Avoid naps after 4pm which can interfere with getting to sleep at night.

Pre-schoolers aged 3 to 5 years

Most preschool children go to sleep between 7 and 9pm at night, and wake between 6:30 and 8am. Many children start to give up naps after their third birthday, but 15% of five year-olds are still napping once a day, and it's important to let children nap if they're sleepy.

As for toddlers, nighttime fears are common, and sleepwalking and sleep terrors peak in preschool years.

Preschoolers can be very persistent when they don't want to go to bed – maintain a consistent approach!

Sleep tips for pre-schoolers

  • Maintain a regular sleep schedule.
  • Adapt the bedtime routine to include new things your child enjoys, such as playing with specific (quiet) toys or reading books, provided that it still ends in the bedroom. A sticker chart on the wall can help motivate model behavior at bedtime.
  • Encourage your child to fall asleep independently.
  • A favorite toy or blanket can help encourage a sense of security and encourage self-soothing.

School age: 6 to 12 years

Most school children will have their wake time dictated by the time they need to get ready for school. It's important that bedtime allows for 9-11 hours sleep, though some children will need more.

Sleepiness during the day, mood swings and behavioral problems, could indicate that a child isn't getting enough sleep.

When school starts one of the biggest threats to sleep is homework, both in terms of time and anxiety. Encourage your child to finish their homework early in the evening, so that they have plenty of time to wind down time before sleep.

Many school children are avid media consumers – spending much of their free time on smartphones, the TV or internet. Watching TV around bedtime can be associated with resistance to going to sleep, difficulty falling asleep and anxiety about sleep.

If they aren't sleeping well they may benefit from less time online and more time exercising. One study in 7 year-olds found that for every hour a child was sedentary, they took 3 more minutes to fall asleep!

Sleep tips for 6 to 12 year olds

  • Teach children about healthy sleep habits – encourage them to notice how different they feel after a good night's sleep.
  • Continue to encourage a regular and consistent sleep schedule.
  • Avoid screen time as part of the pre-bed routine.
  • Keep the bedroom dark, cool and quiet. Where possible, exclude phones, TVs and computers from the bedroom at night.

Teenagers 13 to 17 years

Recent studies suggest that most teenagers are not getting enough sleep, averaging fewer than 7 hours of sleep. Lack of sleep affects mood, concentration, risk-taking behaviour, diet and immunity from illness. In older teens, lack of sleep has been linked to risk of driving accidents.

Sleep deprivation is likely to arise as a result of a conflict between a teenager's internal body clock, and school or college schedules.

At or around puberty, teenagers naturally become more alert late in the evening – their body clocks shift a few hours back. This means that they may only become sleepy at midnight. With exams, homework, extracurricular activities, social opportunities and after school jobs to keep them occupied, most older teenagers only sleep after 11pm.

The need to rise early to get to school for 8:30am puts sleep time under pressure. Many teenagers build up a sleep debt during the week. While they may attempt to 'catch up' on sleep by lying in at the weekend, they will often be sleepy during the week.

Many teenagers consume caffeinated drinks or pills to stay awake during the day, which can put sleep under increased threat. Alcohol also interferes with sleep.

Sleep tips for teenagers

  • Teach teenagers about the science of sleep – let them know lack of sleep can influence their exam results, their relationships and crucially, their safety.
  • Don't let a sleepy teenager drive.
  • Encourage a regular schedule which allows 8-10 hours sleep, and help your child stick to it 7 days a week, as closely as possible. A consistent sleep schedule will help the body get to sleep faster.
  • Teens can still have bedtime rituals. You could checking in before your child goes to sleep to ensure there is nothing bothering them before they go to sleep.
  • If possible, keep the bedroom reserved for sleep. If your child works in the bedroom discourage them from working on the bed so that they are better able to switch off from work.
  • Encourage your child to be aware of the caffeine content in soft drinks, coffee, tea and any drinks sold as energy enhancers, and to avoid in the hours leading up to bedtime.
  • Most teens have autonomy over their bedroom but try to encourage them to maintain a dark, cool and quiet environment at night


'Parasomnia' is the term given to unusual behaviors that occur during sleep. For young children, the most common are disorders of partial arousal or wakefulness which happen in the transitions out of deep sleep: confusional arousals, sleepwalking and sleep terrors.

Confusional arousals

These are very common in toddlers and involve noisy and inconsolable thrashing or crying. A child is unlikely to wake fully and will usually return to sleep after half an hour.


This is more common in older children. Events can be as simple as getting out of bed to completing complex tasks like making a snack, or even moving furniture. In older children, urinating in cupboards is surprisingly common.

Sleep terrors

As their name suggests, sleep terrors involve the appearance of absolute fear (sweating, eyes dilated, racing heartbeat), often accompanied by a bloodcurdling scream. Some children bolt out of bed. Although they are distressing to witness, children will be unaware that anything has happened when they wake up.

Parasomnias tend to run in families and can be more frequent at times of stress, or if a child is overtired, unwell, or taking medication.

Coping with parasomnias

These events are usually infrequent and mild and stop naturally before puberty but if you are at all concerned that your child's safety is at risk, talk to your doctor for advice.

If your child sleep walks, lock windows and fit gates to stop them falling down the stairs. As far as possible, try to move any furniture or obstacles they might trip over or walk into. The advice is not to wake your child since that will probably prolong the event. Instead, try not to disturb them too much but guide them back to bed if they are mobile.

To reduce the risk of parasomnias, increase the amount of sleep your child gets by increasing naptime or moving bedtime earlier. Stick to a regular sleep schedule.

It's thought that anxiety about sleepwalking or night terrors can actually make them more likely to occur, so the advice is to avoid discussing an event the previous night with your child. If your child is aware, reassure them that their behavior is very common and and not something they need to worry about.


Unlike sleep terrors, nightmares are disturbing dreams which wake your child and leave them with vivid memories. This makes them reluctant to go back to sleep.

Nightmares occur during REM sleep. Most children experience at least one nightmare and 1 in 4 may have repeated scary dreams over a few months.

Coping with nightmares

To reduce the risk of nightmares, avoid reading scary stories or letting your child watch scary movies at night. Ask your child if there is anything worrying them before they go to sleep, and reassure them by leaving a dim light on, or leaving their bedroom door open, if they feel safer.

Ideally comfort your child in their own room, so that they don't get dependent on sleeping in your bed to feel safe. Toddlers are unlikely to be able to understand that dreams are not real. Comfort and reassure them that they are safe. Try leaving on a dim night light and ensure that a toy they are attached to is in reach.

Older children can try strategies such as imagining that they are watching the TV and switching to a new channel, or imagining a dreamcatcher or force field keeping them safe.

Is it something more serious? Recognising sleep disorders

The focus of this guide is on coping with behavioral sleep problems. If you're worried that your child is sleepy during the day despite sufficient sleep, they may have another type of sleep problem. Ask your doctor for advice about sleep disorders.


Narcolepsy often first occurs in the mid teens but can occur earlier. It affects about 1 in 2000 children. If is characterized by periods of excessive and extreme sleepiness during the day. A powerful urge to sleep develops, often resulting in a short nap or 'sleep attack'.

These sleep attacks generally last for around 15 minutes, but may last longer, and result in the sufferer feeling refreshed and able to continue their day as normal. Patients with narcolepsy also tend to fall asleep much faster than healthy individuals and may experience the condition alongside other forms of sleep disturbance, for example, sleep paralysis and sleep fragmentation.

Narcolepsy may also present with 'cataplexy', a sudden loss of muscle tone. During these attacks, jaw muscles become slack, the head will suddenly fall forward and the knees will buckle. Attacks are most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter or anger and usually last for 30 seconds or less, meaning that they may be missed altogether.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

'Apnea' means the absence of breathing. When a child with OSA is asleep, their upper airway repeatedly narrows or closes, stopping air from getting through. The child may snore or breathe loudly, and may suddenly gasp for air.

OSA is often associated with daytime sleepiness because the sleeper has to wake up briefly to get breathing again, resulting in a very restless sleep. Someone with OSA can wake hundreds of times a night. These partial awakenings might be too brief to see directly, but can be measured in a sleep laboratory.

Children with OSA typically have more trouble breathing on their backs, because the tongue falls back and blocks the air passage, and during the second part of the night during REM sleep.

If you suspect narcolepsy or sleep apnea, ask your doctor for advice.


This guide combines insights and advice from a number of resources but especially research by Jodi Mindell, PhD, and her book Sleeping through the night (2005, Harper Collins), and Richard Ferber's book Solve your child's sleep problems (revised edition 2006, Fireside).

Blunden, SL. (2012) Behavioural sleep disorders across the developmental age span: An overview of causes, consequences and treatment modalities Psychology 3.03: 249.

National Sleep Foundation (2015) Sleep topics

Nixon, GM et al. (2009) Falling asleep: the determinants of sleep latency Arch Dis Child 2009;94:9 686-689

Meltzer, LJ. (2010) Clinical management of behavioral insomnia of childhood: treatment of bedtime problems and night wakings in young children Behavioral Sleep Medicine 8.3: 172-189.

Mindell, JA. (2006) et al. Behavioral treatment of bedtime problems and night wakings in infants and young children Sleep 29.10: 1263.

Mindell, JA. et al. (2015) Bedtime Routines for Young Children: A Dose-Dependent Association with Sleep Outcomes Sleep 38.5: 717-722.

Volkovitch et al. (2015) Sleep patterns of co-sleeping and solitary sleeping infants and mothers: a longitudinal study Sleep Medicine published online 2 September

Watson, N. F., et al. Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2015)